Brandon Arbuckle ’19: Dadaist and Surrealist Art

Brandon Arbuckle ’19 — The course I took while abroad at the University of Aberdeen in Aberdeen, Scotland, was a modern art course which covered works from around the 18thcentury to present day, constructing a chronological narrative of art. Thanks to the Givens Endowed Scholarship I was able to connect classroom history with actual works throughout Europe. In addition to guidance from the Givens Committee, I worked with my professor in Aberdeen to make the most of my experiential journey and scholarship.

From London to Paris, Basel to Prague, I primarily sought out Dadaist and Surrealist art, but saw a vast majority of the pieces we studied in class. In order to understand some of the works I was seeing, I also visited one non-art museum, the Sigmund Freud Museum while in Vienna. Freud, in his dealings with the unconscious mind and dreams, heavily influenced Dadaist and Surrealist artists. Many of the surrealist works I saw, especially from artists like Ernst, Magritte, and Dali, had this ethereal other-worldly feel.

One of the central themes that developed was that of challenging the status quo. It quickly became evident that the works we were studying were more than just paint on canvas (or other mediums), but were relics that shed insight into the social, political, and economic lives of the periods in which they were created. This was especially apparent in the first museum I visited in Amsterdam, the Moco.

The Moco is housed in the Museum Quarter of Amsterdam, and at the time of my visit had works by two artists I was thrilled to see in one place: Banksy and Salvador Dali. Banksy is perhaps one of the most well-known artists of modern times. Banksy usually uses stencils and aerosol paint, spraying his works onto public surfaces from Israel’s West Bank Wall to London Underground Stairwells in England. His politically provocative pieces frequently invoke themes of police brutality, government surveillance, and consumerism. These pieces alongside some of Dali’s most recognized motifs like melting clocks and a plastic sofa in the form of lips made for an interesting experience.

From Amsterdam I ventured to Brussels, Belgium. While I visited many of the museums there, my favorite by far was the Musée Magritte. René Magritte, one of the most well-known surrealist artists of the 20th
century, challenged traditional ideas of art at the time, combining vast landscapes and skyscapes with motifs drawn from dreams and the unconscious mind.

From my short stay in Belgium, I stayed in the heart of Paris with a Couchsurfing host for a week. The sheer quantity of museums is incredible, but my favorite was the Espace Dali in the heart of Montmartre, a quiet hilltop neighborhood with no shortage of great names in art. The Salvador Dali museum is dedicated to his sculptures and engravings: giant brass snails with wings, a pixelated Abraham Lincoln that upon closer inspection is also a woman looking out of a window, and plenty of long-legged knobby-kneed elephants. It was downright bizarre, and fit in with some of the characters I saw while in Paris.

While that was one of many museums I visited in Paris, Berlin in Germany was the next stop of my journey en route to Basel, Switzerland. Berlin seemed to be the “alternative” capital of the world, both socially and artistically. I felt as if every square inch of the city was covered in street art, like metal sculptures chained to pipes, posters pasted up on partitions, or spray painted murals covering entire buildings. I was blown away with the creativity. In a city with a turbulent history, it has carved its place in the art world today. On the train ride from Berlin to Basel, I stared out the window and commented to the passenger next to me, “there’s so much street art here,” as we passed beneath a bridge, columns covered in the graffiti tags of local artists. “I’d call it vandalism,” he replied. I think it’s more than that, but I guess it boils down to personal opinion.

Basel, Switzerland was the smallest city on my journey, and the last until after finals were over. There, I visited the Kunstmuseum, home to great works from surrealist Max Ernst, Pablo Picasso, and Jackson Pollock. While their town was small, their collection was incredible and varied. The museum was enjoyable but the hospitality of everyone I encountered really made my stay memorable.
After the conclusion of my final exams, I finally ventured out of the cold corner of Scotland south to Glasgow, Edinburgh, and London. This was the capstone experience to my coursework, and I actually saw a majority of the pieces from our final examination in the flesh, such as Gauguin’s

“Vision After the Sermon” and Renoir’s “The Skiff.” While most students I think can relate to courses they have taken that do not stick with them long after they put down their pencils for the final exam, art history was not one of them for me. Connecting my in-class learning with museum visits helped me tremendously academically, as topics that may not have been immediately understood in class were clarified in particularly well-made exhibitions. Additionally, I now have a new interest to explore when traveling.

I can’t thank the Givens family, the selection committee, and Wabash enough for affording me this incredible opportunity. There are too many places and museums that I visited that I didn’t list in this blog post. I was able to expand my housing budget substantially by Couchsurfing in nearly every place I visited. If you have questions about my experiences or traveling on a budget, please contact me at I left my experience abroad with a much greater appreciation for artistic expression that will stick with me for a lifetime. I look forward to returning to Europe someday.

Sovann Kho ’19: Gothic Architecture

Gothic Architecture
Campus: Harlaxton College, UK
Fall Semester 2017

Sovann Kho ’19—They did not allow me to take pictures of Westminster Abbey in London as soon as I step in the front door. It did not really bother me at that moment. However, when I went in, it was so hard to hold my phone down. I found my favorite Gothic style architecture.

Art Museum

Westminster Abbey is beautiful and is the representation of Britain power, pride, and inspiration. The interior wall and nave of the building is so decorative. The ratio of the dimension is so well calculated and constructed that the space seemed small. The nave is so high up as it is reaching into space. In addition, Westminster Abbey expresses Britain power. The floor is full of the tombs of important people such as artists, royal families, and leaders. Not very surprised, Westminster Abbey becomes the place where kings and queens get crowned. The enormity and the firm standing structure in the middle of London seem like it is the root of the entire place. Moreover, while I was standing in the middle of the building, I felt a sense of pride and inspiration. I am very sure the awesomeness of this building does give the British people a sense of pride of being British, and I would feel the same if I were British. Personally, the architecture inspired me to strive for something big and great although I am not sure what I want to strive for yet. I am sure it also gives the same sense to the young Britain as it did to me as well. Westminster Abbey amazed me, and it is the Britain power, pride, and inspiration.


I am really thankful for the Givens family and Wabash College for giving me an opportunity to sense the world in a different perspective. I was able to study Gothic style architecture in the UK and learned how important those art forms are in the UK.Westminster Abbey, for instance, is very important to the British because it represents their art and culture, and especially, it is where the kings and queens got crowned. I would not have this rare opportunity without the help from the Givens family and Wabash College.

Jonah Woods ’18: Art History in Italy and Greece

Art History in Italy and Greece

Temple of Zeus in Athens

Jonah Woods ’18—My trips this past fall, thanks to the Givens Award were eye-opening experiences into vastly different periods of history and allowed me to appreciate what art has meant to generations over the years. While studying at John Cabot, I took an art history class covering the ancient monuments in Rome. We covered sites used for entertainment, the arts, and daily life. To complement the monuments in Rome, I travelled to Athens, Greece and other parts of Italy with the help of the Givens Endowed Scholarship.

I travelled to Athens in October, and the most important constructions I saw were on the hill of the Acropolis of Athens and the Temple of Zeus down below it. Both places were built in honor of the gods they worshiped, all with different meanings and respective styles. In my class back in Rome, I was able to compare the Acropolis and Temple of Zeus with the Roman Forum and the Temple of Jupiter. Although many years passed between the artwork in Athens and Rome, they still erected enormous monuments in honor of their gods, a practice we continue today. These experiences helped me see that the structures were tools to show the permanence of the culture (or so they thought); the Greeks and Romans tried to prove they were here to stay by building these incredible complexes.

After Athens, I went to Siena and then Florence to look at Renaissance era artwork. In Seina, I saw the historical Cathedral of Saint Mary and the work from Bernini, Donatello, and Michaelanglo inside. I was fascinated most by the work of Donatello, which manipulated bronze (an incredibly hard metal) into rugged, course-like clothes and hair. As I later saw at the Accademia Gallery in Florence, Michaelanglo pushed the boundaries of sculpting in his David. He added movement to his pieces in a unique way that was divergent from the popular artists of his time.

Thanks to the Givens family and this award, I was able to see these works of art and how they compared to other pieces over the years. I am so thankful for the opportunity to travel to these wonderful places, and would suggest that anyone who has little or no background in art to do the same. In all of the places I was able to see during my time abroad, these places were the most special because of the extra involvement I was able to have with the arts. I would like to thank the Givens family for the experience of a lifetime.

Cal Hockemeyer ’19-Paris, Rouen, Giverny, and Amsterdam


Cal Hockemeyer ’19Having the opportunity to spend a semester 4,000 miles from home while pursuing my education was perhaps the most intellectually enlightening time of my life. Having to adapt to another culture while learning and taking classes in a second language was an incredibly enriching experience that will affect me for years to come in more ways than I can possibly predict. One area in which I really grew during those four months was in my understanding and appreciation of the visual arts. Due to the unwavering generosity of the Givens family, I was able to supplement my classroom education by traveling to Paris, Rouen, Giverny, and Amsterdam to see some of the world’s finest paintings.

The art movement that I was primarily concerned with studying was that of the impressionists, so it was only natural that I visited Paris. The first museum I visited there was the Musée d’Orsay, home of the most highly renowned collection of impressionist paintings in the world. This collection contains paintings from the most important of the French Impressionists, including Manet, Pissarro, Degas, and Monet. Some of my favorite paintings in this collection include Monet’s La gare Saint-Lazare and La rue Montorgueil.

While in Paris, I also had the opportunity to see the Musée Marmottan Monet as well as the Musée de l’Orangerie. The former has a large collection of works from the different parts of Monet’s life while the latter houses Monet’s eight Water Lilies murals. The Musée Marmottan Monet also contains paintings that Monet collected throughout his lifetime, both from close friends such as Pierre-Auguste Renoir as well as the Japanese prints which had a great influence on Monet’s craft. Here, I was able to see not only how Monet’s subjects and style changed over his lifetime, but also the types of works he admired and drew inspiration from. The massive Water Lilies paintings displayed in the Musée de l’Orangerie are spread across the walls of two oval-shaped rooms. Monet painted the murals during the last years of his life at his Garden in Giverny.

It was only fitting, then, that I took a trip to Giverny to see for myself the garden which appears in hundreds of Monet’s works. Though it rained while I was there, it was an incredible sight to behold. The lily garden was especially breathtaking in the rain. During the same weekend that I visited Giverny I was also able to see the Musée des Beaux Arts in Rouen, which is the home to an exhibit of paintings from French Impressionists such as Caillebotte, Sisley, and Monet. It is also the city in which Monet painted his Rouen Cathedral series, a collection of 30 paintings depicting the outside of the Rouen Cathedral at different times of day and in different weather conditions. This series exemplifies how Monet and the impressionists were able to paint in such a way that emphasized the moments rather than the subjects they were depicting.

The Rouen Cathedral Series

The last location that I visited was Amsterdam, where I spent time in the Rijksmuseum and the Van Gogh Museum. Home of many of the world’s finest works of art, the Rijksmuseum houses a small collection of impressionist paintings that includes a couple of Monet’s works, as well as artwork form the Amsterdam Impressionists. These artists were influenced by both the works of other Hague School artists in Amsterdam and the French Impressionists. My favorite painting from this exhibit was In the Month of July, a work by Paul Gabriël which depicts a windmill on a sunny day in The Netherlands. Seeing the Van Gogh Museum was a great way to supplement the rest of my excursions because I was able to see how the impressionist movement inspired Van Gogh, greatest of the Post-Impressionists and one of the most revered artists of all time.

Going to these exhibits wasn’t the only thing I did during my semester abroad to develop my understanding and appreciation of art. While in Heidelberg, I enrolled in a class called Visual Art and Language, through which I was able to build a foundation that allowed me to better understand the techniques and tools artists use to speak through their art. While in this class, I was assigned the task of giving a presentation over any artist of my choosing and a few of their works. Naturally, I chose to present over Claude Monet. While presenting (in German), I gave a small background detailing the goals of the impressionist movement and the techniques they used to achieve them. Because of my experiences outside of the classroom, I was able to confidently give an informed summary of these subjects. Additionally, all of the paintings that appeared in my presentation (La rue Montorgueil, La gare Saint-Lazare, Coquelicots, and paintings from the Rouen Cathedral series) were works that I had seen in person during my excursions. The presentation was the perfect culmination of everything that I had learned throughout my excursions, art class, and study of the German Language.

I would like to say thank you to the Givens family for providing me the means which allowed me to embark on this incredible journey of self-discovery. I can say with the utmost sincerity that it has enriched my education and growth in ways that I would have not been able to pursue on my own. Through their unwavering generosity, the Givens have given me – as well as a multitude of other Wabash men – experiences we will never forget.

Gage Ulery ’18 – My Summer in Athens

My Summer in Athens 

Gage Ulery ’18 — Wabash College and the Rudolph Family have provided me with an experience that I will be forever grateful for. I was given the opportunity to expand my education, not only in different parts of the country, but in the beautiful city of Athens. I was able to do this because of the generous acts of the Rudolph family’s summer study abroad scholarship.

My summer was filled with plenty of ferry rides, tastings of new and delicious food, while meeting some great, new friends, and enjoying the beautiful, warm weather Greece had to offer. While I was abroad, I studied ‘Sustainability Across Time and Spatial Scale in Greece and Urban Islands’ and ‘The Anthropology of Food: The Mediterranean Diet.’

One of my favorite activities while in Greece was walking around the city.  With the Acropolis being only a five-minute walk, I made several trips to awe in the architecture crafted by the early Greeks. The National Garden, which was right across from the Presidents House, was a great place to exercise and gaze at the beautiful trees, which provided much needed shade from the hot sun. Museums, such as The Acropolis Museum and the Athens War Museum, provided us with plenty of new information and pictures about Greece’s history.

‘Sustainability Across Time’ allowed me to visit some of the most beautiful islands in the world and gave me time to take in the beauty of the ocean. Hydra and Santorini, two of the most popular islands off the coast, had an amazing view that cannot be forgotten.  One of my favorite events from the ‘Mediterranean Diet’ class was when we toured to a private fish market. The class was introduced to the owner, George, and he gave us a full rundown of the fresh fish he catches every day for the shop. George let us smell his odorless fish so we can compare his fish to the other fish markets we have visited.  The workers would bring in these huge creatures and put them on display until the buyer came and picked them up. One of the fish that was brought out on display was a Libyan Swordfish.  George asked me, “Can you lift 120lbs?” I responded, “120lbs? Absolutely!”  I was lucky enough to attempt to hold the fish that weighed every bit of 120lbs.  After putting the fish back on the ice, I was covered with fish juices, and was given a company shirt by the owner himself.

Athens opened my eyes to the vast diversity in this world. I became friends with Americans, Greeks, Albanians, Australians, Germans and Syrians all because of this amazing opportunity. Studying abroad in Greece not only allowed me to meet people, it also allowed me to grow as a man. I joined a group of people who believed in completely different subjects such as politics, religion, and education as me. From there, I learned to be more understanding of others and more respectful of each of their ideas. I also learned how to “fend” for my own and more independent. I would make frequent trips to the grocery store in the hopes of recreating the delicious meals we would eat from the night before. I am and will always be forever grateful of the Rudolph Family and Wabash College. Thank you for this great opportunity!

Jonathan Montoya ’18

Jonathan Montoya ’18

El Museo Del Prado

Jonathan Montoya

El Museo Del Prado was by far my favorite museum of all the ones I visited while abroad. It featured famous works of art by many of Spain’s greatest artists from Salvador Dali to El Greco to Velazquez. However, what I found to be most incredible was El Prado’s collection of works by my favorite artist, Francisco de Goya y Lucientes. I was able to see pieces of his that I had learned so much about in my Spanish Art Class. The way El Prado organized his works of art was the best part. Goya’s works started off as very happy, he saw the world through a lens of positivity, and this was reflected in his art. This entire collection was on the top floor of El Prado and it was shown in rooms that were very well lit. After Goya lost his hearing he became a lot more negative and his art took a very dark turn. His paintings started featuring surrealist scenes painted with very dark colors which were a 180 from when his career started. These paintings became known as the dark paintings and El Prado keeps the collection on the bottom floor in rooms that are very dark. This may sound meaningless, but if you have learned even a bit about the transformation Goya went through then it can tie it all together. This was just one of many experiences abroad that helped me grow as both a scholar and a person. I would like to thank the Givens family once again for affording me the opportunity to further my learning while abroad. Many of my favorite experiences without their help would never have been remotely possible.

Dakota Rhodes ’18

Dakota Rhodes ‘18

Dakota Rhodes​

Architecture as Art

I was walking through Berlin, on my way to Checkpoint Charlie when what I had been learning at Wabash had kicked in. It was a utopic moment of clarity when I could clearly see the difference in the eastern and western Berlin architecture. It sounds so simple, but this was a defining moment for myself. I had been learning about art and architecture through my many classics classes at Wabash, and then I saw its practicality in real life. Architecture is more than a way of building; it is a way to express a cultures view of the world around them. No architect has ever built something because it looks beautiful; they built it for a reason beyond what a wondering eye can see. The difference in architecture was astounding and showed the separation of a capitalistic view of the world and a communistic past. This was so astounding to me because it is something that everyone else looked past. The public was looking for touristy shops and landmarks, but to stop for a moment and wonder, wonder how great men and women depicted their timeline through these buildings, incredible. I wouldn’t have been able to experience this profound moment without the help of the Givens Family. It is because of them that I was able to experience art as it was supposed to be experienced, in person and with insurmountable appreciation.

Michael Lumpkin ’18

Michael Lumpkin ’18

Arch of Titus

Michael Lumpkin at the Arch of Titus

Coming into my Junior year at Wabash College, I had not given the study of Western European Art nearly the time or attention it deserves. Over the past 9 months, through my studies at Wabash College and my study abroad experience so generously supported by the Given’s Family, I have had the opportunity to learn and capture the essence of what art means to our world. At Wabash in the Fall of 2016, I took Dr. Hartnett’s “Roman Art & Archaeology” class, an experience that opened my eyes to the splendors of the art world. This newfound interest inspired me to take the “Introduction to Spanish Art” class spring semester here in Valencia, Spain at the University of Virginia in Valencia. This class has allowed me to look at the different periods in the history of Western European Art, with a special focus on the artists and influences present in Spain.

Combined with my classroom experience, I have been lucky enough to travel and see some of Europe’s finest art first-hand. In April, I visited the Rome, Italy, where I spent time at the Roman Forum. Much of the art and architecture that had previously consisted of the Roman Forum has now been destroyed over the centuries, but one sacred piece of art that remains is the Arch of Titus. On the Arch, one can see the vivid imagery of battle during the Roman period, religious depictions, and how Emperors of the time portrayed themselves to their people. These were images the Roman people saw daily, as they traveled on Rome’s main road under the arch, the Via Sacra. Having just had seen pictures of Victory Arches like these before through my “Roman Art & Archaeology” class, the opportunity to see the Arch of Titus in person was an experience I will never forget. A second experience I found captivating was my visit to the “Sagrada Família” in Barcelona, Spain. A Basilica still yet to be completed after over 100 years of construction, and a creation based on the vision of artist Antoni Gaudí, this building is covered with incredible artwork both inside and out. Lastly, my experience visiting the Prado Museum in Madrid, Spain is something I will never forget. Especially the works Francisco Goya, which portrayed historical scenes in incredibly vivid fashion, left me captivated at the images and with a further understanding of history.

Marcus Hoekstra ’18

Marcus Hoekstra in Alhambra’s garden.

Marcus Hoekstra ‘18

Spain’s beautiful symbiosis of religion

“Wow…that’s great…so what made you study religion?” It’s a common response to a frequent question. What made me study religion? You see, what most people don’t understand, is that the study of spirituality extends far beyond future priests and pastors. First and foremost, as any education is, it is an understanding. It is an introspection into human thought, history, and questions concerning matters greater than oneself, be it spirit or culture. It is the close analyzation of themes, tradition, and the interchange of ideas. No, I never thought I would study it. But yes, I quite enjoy it.

You see, what Wabash has provided me over the past three years is the opportunity to engage with these concepts on a day to day basis. It has sat myself down in a classroom, for hours every week, and pushed me to speak thoughtfully of books taken hundreds, if not thousands of years to writes. No small challenge indeed. It has provided me a foundational understanding on the function of religiosity, its role in this world, and more importantly its place within the human story. So why study religion? Because with these tools, one may begin to better understand current issues such as the ongoing Middle Eastern unrest, disparities in country secularization levels, and their impacts reaching into political, cultural, even economic spheres.

Nasrid palace

Magical, indeed. However, as Herbert Spencer once said, “the ultimate aim of education is not knowledge but action.” Personally, I could not agree anymore with this statement. Recently this phrase has embodied itself in my life in two very powerful ways. The first, was my immersion trip to Israel this past Fall where we studied ongoing inter religious conflict, commonalities, and influence. The second, and more importantly, has been my semester abroad in Valencia, Spain. During my time here, I have been given the chance to engage with Spanish lifestyle, live with a host family, while loving every moment of it. However, much of Spain’s past and present has not always been as “Spanish” as we know it today. Thanks to the Givens Endowment, I have grown to understand this.

I’ve always had a respect for art. Although not an area that I am the most knowledgeable in, it has always fascinated me in its diversity of styles and periods. Being so, the Givens Scholarship has provided me a chance to deepen my artistic understanding of Western culture. With my grant statement, I chose to focus on the Islamic influence of Western art. What better of a place to begin than Spain? For some 400 years, Muslims controlled much of the Iberian Peninsula, infusing its ideas and styles into a Western-Christian Spain. No better can this be seen than in the architecture and of the Alhambra.

Situated in Granada, Spain, this UNESCO World Heritage is one of the largest palaces in Europe. Bearing the mark of Islamic calligraphy, paintings, and wall decorations, much of the original Muslim foundations stand next to gothic and renaissance era churches. I best observed this in the Nasrid palace, in which beautiful courtyards built by Muslim architects have been renovated by Christian builders.

Below the castle, much of the Granada’s architecture and artistic works possess inter religious influences seen in the Alhambra above. Ornate vaulted arches among the Granada’s cathedrals reminisce of their Islamic origins.

Ultimately, it is to say, that the Givens Scholarship has provided me with the opportunity to apply classroom knowledge to real world experience, deepening my appreciation of Spain’s beautiful symbiosis of religion. The Givens has offered me a chance to delve deeper into one of my final Fall course papers and elaborate on my classes here in Spain. It has been a truly wonderful opportunity. Thanks to the Givens family, this has all been possible.



Jacob Covert ’18

Jacob Covert ’18

Islamic Art and Architecture in the Spanish Context

Jacob Covert on his study abroad in Spain

Art is often one of the most omnipresent constants in our lives; however, it often goes unnoticed to the unknowing or untrained eye. I can say that before this semester in Spain, I was one of the millions of people that passed art in any form without a second thought. However, there was one class that I had been encouraged to take by previous Wabash men from this program called Islamic Art and Architecture in the Spanish Context. This amazing class shows the progression of how Islam and Christianity have impacted each other to create art that has never been seen before within Andalucía. Furthermore, this class has shown the lasting impact that art can have on a community and in my case even a society.

I remember starting this class feeling overwhelmed because I was taking a class about a subject I had never studied before, in a different language, with no previous context to help. Yet, as the weeks passed by my knowledge of the basic understanding of Islamic art and architecture grew and little by little my eyes began to open to the world of art. It was truly thanks to the Givens Family that I was finally able to place all that I had learned into the proper perspective when I had the opportunity to visit the Mosque turned Cathedral of Córdoba. From the second that I entered the building, my breath was taken away, as all that I had been studying for months was realized in a single moment. When I walked in I instantly saw the thousands of arches called De entibo in Spanish due to their layered design and striped color. Moreover, as I continued to explore I could see the Islamic influence on the art and architecture. For example, there are no statues of paintings of people or faces within the old area of the mosque because the religion of Islam does not allow for these images, therefore, the exquisite artists of the past compensated for this by creating intricately designed epigraphy on the walls within the whole complex that were laced with secondary meanings, such as political agendas, Islamic verses, or poetry. Furthermore, all the epigraphy was meant to represent water, as water is an important concept within their religious art and is a representation of purity within Islam.

Jacob Covert ’18

In addition to the amazingly intricate art and architecture of the religion of Islam, there were also masterpieces created by the Christians when they conquered southern Spain. An interesting contrast between the two religions was that Christian artists could create statues and paintings with real figures of people, which did not exist before in the artwork of this region. However, the most important contrast that exists between the two religions is the use of light in artwork and, more importantly, the architecture of the Cathedral. I remember that when touring the building I was astounded by how dark it was within the older Muslim portions of the structure, yet as the tour continued there was a distinct change that took place when I enter the area that was redesigned and constructed by the Christians. Within a matter of two steps I was flooded with light and brilliant pieces of artwork depicting the story of Christ. The contrast was as blatant as day is to night because the Mosque turned Cathedral of Córdoba allows for the mixture of two completely different cultures to intersect and be seen as a whole.

While I have had the opportunity to see and visit museums and masterpieces from famous artists like Van Gogh and Picasso, the reason I have focused on the Cathedral of Córdoba was because it was the creation of master artists and architects of two different cultures. The incredible designs, paintings, and architecture give a little glimpse of the two different culture’s view on how art within the Spanish context should be viewed and depicted. Yet, both the art and architecture of both the Christians and Muslims work harmoniously with each other to create the breathtaking structure that is the Cathedral of Córdoba. It was truly the generosity of the Givens Family that brought this dream to fruition during my semester in Granada, Spain and I truly would like to thank them for all that they have allowed me to do.