Biehl ’16 Observes French Lifestyle

Chris Biehl ’16 - As a first time international traveler, I was extremely nervous for our journey from Indianapolis to Newark International to Paris, France. I’m happy to say that my experiences in both airports were nothing but pleasant and after a layover in New Jersey and an eight-hour flight across the Atlantic, we arrived in Paris at 7 am Central European time zone.

When we arrived in France it was a breeze to find our luggage and we began heading to our hotel, Moulin Vert. As we were waiting on a bus our group witnessed what was believed to be a vendor getting arrested by the French police. I thought this was interesting because I’ve never seen anyone get arrested in the United States and it was funny to me that this was the first thing I see.

After witnessing the possible vendor get arrested we rode from the bus into the city. My initial reactions to the city were surprising. My assumed image was wrong. All the people I saw did not dress radically different, they drove on the same side that we do, and a good amount of French citizens are bilingual.

My biggest fear was not being able to communicate or find my way around due to the language barrier. With help from my French 101 & 102 class and the amount of French people who speak English I have had no problem communicating or finding my way around.

Nutella is everywhere. I’ve been to two super markets looking for an outlet converter and they’re entire shelves of Nutella. That being said, the lack of peanut butter is saddening. I knew that peanut butter was scarce in France but I am unable to find any yet.

Other cultural differences I have noticed are transportation. While people do drive, the majority of people get around by foot, scooter, or roller blades. I honestly haven’t seen someone in the United States on roller blades since I was a child.

Puckett ’15 Finds the Travel a Challenge

Austin Puckett ’15 – Wabash Men are not known for looking there best when they get up in the early morning. However, the morning of March 8th was a little different, as my fellow classmates and I started our adventure to Paris for Spring Break. The ride down to Indianapolis got the ball rolling with a pretty humorous car ride and that continued into the Indianapolis Airport. However, just like Wabash men should do, when it came time to get serious, we got serious. It was pretty much your typically airport visits except for the plane that we flew on to Newark was the equivalent to a fun sized candy bar. Something you should know about me is that I am a terrible flyer. So obviously, this was not good for me.
Not only was the plane small but also almost everyone had to dunk their head just to walk in. However, we prevailed and made it to Newark where the dreaded 5-hour layover waited. We passed the time by playing cards and eating what some called their last American meal. I mean there were burgers and fries and I’m pretty sure there was talk of a milkshake. Now like I said before, I am not a great flyer however the plane that we got onto next was not even a plane. As one guy that I met standing in next to me was that it is a “house with wings.” I mean this thing was absolutely massive and you couldn’t see from one end to the other. This made my fear of flying calm some and was able to have a successful flight.
Saturday was just the beginning of what is going to be an amazing trip. I know that with my fellow Wallies we are going to make Paris feel as though we are right at home at Wabash. I don’t know specifically who to thank for this trip but whoever you are, thank you very much for this once in a live time trip.

Stucker ’17 Learning Way Around D.C.

Prof. Sara Drury’s students in front of White House

Kyle Stucker ’17 – Saturday marked the first day of our week-long immersion trip to Washington D.C.  Wabash College’s Rhetoric 370 class, led by Professor Sara Drury, has traveled to our nation’s capitol in order to examine the rhetoric of the city.  The goal of our trip is to answer the following questions:

Who are the rhetorical agents and voices, past and present, in Washington, D.C.? 
How is Washington D.C. a place of politics, activism, service, history, and public memory?

How does rhetoric in Washington, D.C. construct, manage, unify, and divide the nation?

Although we are only one day into our immersion, these questions have already begun to take precedence as we walk the historic streets of Washington D.C.

My personal experience has already taught me many lessons.  Our flight from Indianapolis, IN to Newark, NJ was my first experience in an airplane.  I was able to experience the adrenaline rush of take-off, the awe inspiring view from above, and the stress of boarding and departure.  Once in D.C., I experienced another new activity: riding the subway.  Proper navigation of an underground metro is proving to be a valuable skill.  The metro drastically reduced travel time and is not too complex to understand.  If not for the immersion trip, I would not have gained experience in these valuable activities. 

Although proper transportation skills are important, those newly garnered abilities are merely bonus aquistitions for this trip.  When we arrived in D.C., we immediately began to travel to many of the most popular locations in the city.  Not only did this trip allow us to get our bearings, but we were able to begin developing our own opinions on the rhetoric of Washington D.C.  The White House was our first destination, and it was interesting how different the stately building looked in the context of the city.  When viewed through your television, the White House appears to be much more secluded than what is the reality.  In fact, this difference between the communicated reality and what is actually real may be a prominent theme throughout the trip.  The Washington Monument was next on our list, and it did not disappoint.  The structure is massive; it is the tallest stone monument in the world and stands taller than any other structure in the city.  There was a noticeable difference in the shade of stone about a third of the way up the monument.  This is mostly due to the Civil War when construction was halted.  After the war, it was impossible to use stone from the exact same source which caused a difference in color.  This color difference now serves as a constant reminder of the Civil War, and also of Washington’s ability to rebound from such a crisis and continue to develop. 

Sunday our journey continues.  Each new day will bring new skills, observations, and conclusions relevant to Washington D.C. and its rhetorical significance.  This immersion trip will be an unforgettable experience, not merely because of the pictures I collect or the good times I enjoy, but because of the greater understanding we will have of the real Washington D.C.           

Morrison ’14 Looks Ahead in Israel Trip

Scott Morrison ’14

Scott Morrison ’14 – Tonight is our first night in Israel. We touched down after a long day and a half of travel with the time change included. But the sights we saw in our first hour walking near the old city of Jaffa near Tel Aviv made all of the travel worth it already.

With our rooms not quite ready for us (because the Sabbath ends at sundown on Saturday and they were yet to be cleaned) we students set out to get our bearings and dip our feet in the Mediterranean Sea.

Jaffa Clock Tower is one of the seven clock towers built during the Ottoman period in Israel.

We quickly learned a lot about the everyday culture here in Israel. For starters, pedestrians have the right of way here, so we had to become brave in how we crossed in front of traffic. Israelis boldly walk in front of moving cars, and the cars stop every time, sure enough. We got the chance to peer into shops and attempt to exchange dollars for shekels. We even saw our first Mcdonald’s. We observed buildings and a minaret in the old city, and saw a clock tower built by a sultan hundreds of years ago.

Once to the sea, we took in the breathtaking views of the Tel Aviv skyline and a few of us dipped our feet into the cold sea and felt the soft sand between our toes. We returned for dinner which was quite different from what we are used to in the United States. There was a wide variety of salads, fruits, and pastries of different types. We did not really know what we were eating, but it was mostly all delicious.
Tonight is a little different from the rest of our trip, because Jaffa and Tel Aviv have a more historical than religious focus. Tonight is a night to see a little night life and catch up on sleep before the real trips begin tomorrow at Caesarea Maritima and the University of Haifa.
The cultural shock is pretty big from the food to the language, but you can kind of feel the power that this place has. The antiquity and religious importance permeate the surroundings, and it will only increase as we move east.
We all look forward to what this week has in store, but before I go, I will leave this post with a common Israeli verse, “Tel  Aviv is for play, Jerusalem is for pray.”
- Photos by Ian Baumgardner ’14

Hastings ’15 Taken By Tel Aviv

Hastings shooting video upon arrival in Tel Aviv

Scott Hastings ’15 – After a long, grueling, trek across the world we arrived in Tel Aviv, the second largest city in the country of Israel. First though, before arriving at our destination, we had a layover in France, which was my first experience in a country in which the native language was not one that I understood and I got my first taste of a language barrier. The language barrier would continue into Israel because even though many in Israel speak English, it is very difficult to tell who can understand you and who cannot.

David Phillips, Scott Morrison gaze at Mediterranean Sea.

The city of Tel Aviv, billed as the city that never sleeps, is very westernized in terms of how people live but very Middle Eastern in its looks. Traffic is absolutely mad! It is every driver for themselves out here but, amazingly, the rules governing how traffic treats pedestrians is much stricter. Traffic must stop if someone wants to cross the street. Kalp Juthani and I were amazed at how well we were treated as pedestrians when we went out to photograph the area.

On our walks we were exposed to several different facets of Israeli culture, the night life, religious customs and even Israeli social life. Mosques are much more common than I once thought, as we walked the one or two miles to the Mediterranean Sea, we passed three mosques. It was quite common for Israeli-Arabs to be gathering at the mosques, meeting with friends and of course to be praying there. Graffiti is very common here and on one of our walks we saw a Palestinian flag painted on a building. I found it ironic that a van bearing the letters “UN” was parked right by the graffiti.

The Mediterranean played host to the gathering of young Israelis with their friends and significant others. The lack of a difference in the behavior of young Israelis and Americans was probably one of the most eye-opening aspects of our visit to the sea. We got beautiful shots of the buildings along the coast and some of us even dipped our toes in the water. The weather of course allowed all this without a jacket or any heavy coverings because it is incredibly beautiful and warm here, a great departure from the frozen tundra that is Indiana.

I already plan on a return to Tel Aviv some time in my future because I have absolutely fallen in love with this beautiful city and Israel itself. I am only one day into this fantastic trip and continue to look forward to everything that is to come.

- Photos by Ian Baumgardner ’14

Nathan Bode: Sad To Be Home

Nathan Bode - Buenos dias, Wallies! No, this is not my typical blog for the class of 2016. I’m coming to you from approximately *looks out plane window* one billion feet in the air, while flying back to Cincinnati, Ohio from Miami, Florida. Before I reflect on the past week, let’s stop and take in that last sentence: Flying FROM Miami (75 degrees, sunny, beach) TO Ohio (30 degrees, cloudy, Ohio). The struggle is real.

Nathan Bode dancing in the streets of Havana

Anyways, if you’ve read the blogs of my colleagues, than you’ve got a pretty good idea of what we’ve been up to in the Caribbean. From drinking mojitos and smoking cigars to getting hustled by women in colonial outfits and participating in traditional Santeria dances, our trip to Cuba has been a whirlwind, and a fun one at that.

But mojitos, pina coladas, cuba libres, and Ron Collins aside, the trip was also an exceptional insight into what the Cuban situation is really all about. In reflection, it’s hard to believe how empty my view on the Cuban political and economic system really was without actually seeing it firsthand. Reading the books, watching the documentaries, and listening to the guest speakers in class was a great place to start, but without an actual visit to pull it all together, there are massive cracks in our understanding of what is jaded opinion and what is reality. A blessing in disguise is that even on the other side of the embargo blockade, bias also exists. By the end of the trip, our group began to discuss the growing eeriness that our Cuban experience (a government-guided experience) may have been a little too perfect. We ate at the restaurants the Cuban government wanted us to, met the people the government wanted us to meet, and basically saw the things the government wanted us to see. Suddenly it sounds like a journey a la Twilight Zone.

Enter the value of the immersion trip. Because we were able to visit Cuba, we experienced all of the bias, American and Cuban. We were able to talk to the locals and bear witness to all the sides of the story. Without observing the differences between America’s Cuba, Castro’s Cuba, and the people’s Cuba, we would never have been able to form a valuable opinion on the situation for ourselves (aka “Thinking Critically”). Because of this trip, I will able to tell my family that no, the Cubans didn’t try to kill us when we got there. And I will be able to tell my classmates that the genuine warmth and kindness of the Cuban people is something the American people could afford to emulate. But I will also be able to acknowledge through first-hand experience the ability of a Communist government to shape almost every aspect of life in the way it sees fit.

The bottom line is that cultural studies in the classroom are like chemical equations in a textbook; they are helpful, but the real value comes when you get your hands a little dirty and can see what happens in the real world.

I wish I could say it was good to be back.

John Kennedy: A Cuban American Visits Cuba

John Kennedy - As I sit on the American Airlines regional jet cruising at 37,000 feet, headed towards home, I reflect on the week long journey which has just taken place. This past week has been one of the greatest and most informative times of my life. The food, people and places have all been phenomenal and I am thankful for the opportunity Wabash has provided to me to participate in this excursion.

John Kennedy chats with Professor Rogers at the University of Havana.

As a Cuban-American, it was interesting to see the places which my abuelos and aunts and aunt and uncle were able to see when they were children. I was able to experience the culture of my heritage, which growing up in Indianapolis, was neglected. This trip gave me an overall pride in my Cuban heritage, which I am sure will please my Cuba-loving mother.

The time spent in Cuba was incredibly educational and eye opening. We were able to prove and disprove American stereotypes of the island. Growing up, I always envisioned that Havana was defined by old 1950’s American cars and soldiers patrolling the area. The old cars due exist in great quantities and are incredibly beautiful to see. My stereotype about the soldiers was disproved as there were not many soldiers patrolling the city of Havana. The only major places where they were stationed would be guarding the ministry buildings, a massive obelisk monument to Martí and the Granma.

For many on this trip, it was their first time in a foreign nation, let alone a nation to which the United States lacks diplomatic relations with. Those who have not flown in an aircraft or experienced airport security, are now professionals at it, having flown four times since last Sunday. We have come to relish the warm weather of both Cuba and Florida, 750F is much better than the 420F which our destination is predicted to be at touchdown.

El Castile de Morro

The group which I have had the privilege to travel with for the past week is an outstanding group of 16 Wabash gentlemen. I truly believe that only schools like Wabash would be able to do this type of trip. All on the trip acted maturely and responsibly at all times during the course of this journey. My favorite moment of this entire journey happened the first night in Cuba. Our guide William (who in hind sight was quite censored by the Cuban government) led us to El Castile de Morro, a massive Spanish fort guarding the entrance to the Port of Havana. I found it phenomenal how insanely well kept the fort was, despite the Cuban government not possessing a large amount of money. As the child of two military parents and sibling to a future Naval Academy midshipmen, forts have always fascinated me. They are the true combination of where army meets navy (with the exception of beach landings and the annual Army- Navy football game). The architecture of the fort was mind blowing, and in particular, the gatehouses were the most pristine I have ever seen.

Reflecting back on the experience on the island, it is easy to see why foreigners fall in love with this country. In Cuba, it is possible for people to get whatever they wish, in the words of a Canadian tourist I met, “Cuba has lovely scenery, beautiful women and alcohol everywhere.” This being said, there still is a gross disappointment that I was not able to experience the world of the average Cuban, the world like people such as my great uncle experience on a day to day basis. As students, we only got a small taste of what life for the average Cuban is throughout the entire trip. We were able to witness several blackouts as we traveled away from Havana one night to meet with members from the CDR or Committees for the Defense of the Revolution. That night, even with there being blackouts all around, we were treated like royalty. In particular, that night was my birthday and I received the best birthday present ever, a one hour long dance show from the children of the neighborhood.

In Miami, we were able to see the lives of those who immigrated to the United States since the time of the revolution. There, we were truly able to experience a variety of Cuban cuisine (in Cuba, food shortages are common, making some food hard to come by). Whereas for a majority of the group, this cuisine was new, for me it was not. I was in Cuban food heaven and loved every moment of it. I literally ate several meals until I was physically unable to eat anymore. Upon hearing that we had just traveled to Cuba, the Cubans in Miami were more than eager to tell us their reasons for leaving and ask us about our experience in their homeland.

Tim Padgett talks with the students at the WLRN Studios.

We had the honor of meeting Jaime Sushlicki and Tim Padgett in Miami to discuss our trip and what we had learned. It was excellent to get the opinion of a Jewish Cuban immigrant (Jaime) on his thoughts about the Cuban government and Cuba. Even though he has been in the United States since 1960, he still worries about the nation of his birth and is concerned that Cuba will turn into a resort nation when US-Cuban relations are restored. Tim Padgett was the final person we met with and it was excellent to get the opinion from a writer from the Time Magazine. This allowed for the trip to go “full circle” and provided a phenomenal experience for us all.

After spending one final day in Miami looking at the Jewish influence on both Miami and Havana, we began to realize that our time was limited and we would soon have to return home to Indiana. Staring out my window on the plane into the abyss that is the sky, I encourage all those who have the opportunity to go to Cuba to go with an open mind and not as a tourist to enjoy the sights but to look in depth to where they are and truly appreciate the people, the wonderful people who are on that tiny island just south of Florida.

As I conclude this blog, I begin to feel sad. My experience is over and I may never return to that island. How I loved that island and how I was able to better understand both myself and the world around me. Finally, I would like to dedicate this blog to my abuelo, Roberto Gonzalez who left his beloved Cuba in 1963, never to return and to all those who leave their homeland never to see it again.

Kalp Juthani Reflects on Cuban Paradox

Kalp Juthani - Miami Beach has given us time to reflect on our experiences. I feel that this post should cover some of the thoughts that I have developed on the Cuban Generation Y. I must start off by saying that the trip was far from anything I could have ever imagined. It has significantly changed the way I think about culture, as well as, many of the perceptions that I had prior to the trip. I would like to thank our professors along with everyone in Havana and Miami that made this learning opportunity possible.

Influence from free markets has led to an emerging generational gap in Cuba. We saw fragments of free markets in Paladores or private restaurants as well as in the growing black market. These new opportunities are quickly changing Cuba, show that efforts towards nationalizing the Cuban economy have faded, and that the new generation seeks better lifestyles. I began to find this theme after speaking to our tour guide, William. As a staunch supporter of the Revolution, William aspired to help the socialist cause. Despite his canned responses and dismissal of a few of our pertinent questions, he really opened up to me about his personal life when talking about his family. His daughter belonged to a new wave of Cubans that desired the opportunity found outside of Havana. Through his example, I began to develop a sense of the impact that this divide has on everyday people, as well as, predictions on the direction that the nation is heading.

Students watch children dance in the streets of Havana as part of a CDR event.

We encountered a greater generational divide at a Comités de Defensa de la Revolución (Committees for the Defense of the Revolution or CDR) meeting. We drove through dark alleys on the outskirts of Havana and realized that we were far beyond the confounds of central parts of the city. We saw shadows of run down colonial architecture and ancient cars as we approached our destination. We were excited about finally leaving the splendor of Vedado, escaping sites reserved for tourists, and seeing the “real Cuba” that we had seeked since arriving. After driving through villages that were without power, we arrived to the brightly lit village of San Miguel de Pardon. We were greeted by warm locals and a crowd of cheering children. It was immediately clear that they had been preparing for our visit for quite sometime. We saw a gigantic Cuban flag and 17 seats set for their American visitors. Not only were we anxious for what we thought would be a meeting but we also felt their anxiety as they opened their homes to us hoping that we would be pleased with their hospitality. We were greeted with a welcome speech explaining the role of the CDR in San Miguel de Padrón. They shouted “Viva Fidel. Viva Raul. Viva la Revolución” after the speech showing a commitment to the 50 year old cause.

Kalp Junthani photographs an obelisk in Revolution Square

Rather than the forum on issues in the village (including poverty) as all of us had expected, we experienced a side of their vibrant culture. We were amazed by the choreographed dances that had been prepared for us. It was not until a later reflection in Miami of our best experience in Cuba that we realized the hidden agenda. William informed us that is was normal for meetings to have such fanfare. As Wabash men, we thought critically about the information that we had received. We learned a lot more from our interactions and observations with the village children. I noticed a few Cuban teenagers around us filming the choreography with their American smartphones. This CDR meeting was clearly a special event. I also learned by speaking to a 12 year old that his favorite “equipo de béisbol” was the Yankees. He admired American players and aspired to become like them. Patrick Bryant ’16 handed me a piece of candy he had found which I then preceded to give to a young girl standing next to me. After looking away to watch the children dance, Adam Alexander ’16 went on to notice that our small act filled the girl with excitement and caused her to tell those around her that we were friendly people. There were countless interactions that evening that showed a new generation of Cubans, wanting a taste of the American dream.

Our time in Miami revealed similar themes. We met with Tim Padget ’84 at WRLN studios. Through his experience as a journalist, we learned that Cuban-Americans carry a sentiment towards the expropriations of Cuba following the Revolution. The new generations no longer carry this sentiment with a new poll finding that 50% of the Cuban-American population wanting an end to the embargo. He was almost as excited to see us and learn from us as we were from him. Our discussion helped to explore the government’s agenda and the interactions that truly give an idea as to where Cuba is heading.

As our time in Miami ends, it is easy to forget that the hardships faced by Cubans on a daily basis are a reality. They are some of the friendliest people in the world, and I hope that this next generation of Cubans and Americans lead to an era of progress.

Korbin West on the Beauty of our Trip

Korbin West – As I walked out of our hotel for our last full day, I realized this was our last opportunity to absorb some of the beauty of our trip. I have already experienced some of the most amazing views so far in the trip, such as the great palaces of Batista or the desolate slums that many Cubans suffer in every day. However, I quickly learned that Miami also has some amazing buildings and styles unlike anything else I’ve seen. Miami Beach was built with foundations of Art Deco and Modernistic architecture integrated into every shop, hotel, and restaurant.

The Jewish Museum of Florida

One fine example of Miami’s architecture was the museum we visited, the Jewish Museum of Florida. Simply put, it was an awe-inspiring building. As I walked in, I was greeted by a spacious room, filled with the calming light from the stained glass and large, decadent chandeliers. On every wall hung Jewish artifacts that the museum has spent over a decade collecting and artifacts as old as over 250 years old. The museum was a classic example of the Art Deco style (a type of architecture dedicated to a luxurious and futuristic look), with an emphasis on symmetry, great columns, overarching ceiling, and ornate decorations. The building was so committed to its architectural style that it had to cut off half of the Jewish Star of David to retain its symmetry. As I walked out of the museum, it only became more apparent that the city was filled with pronounced architectural masterpieces.

Bacardi Building

While just looking for a place to eat, I came across a few more of Miami’s great pieces of design. The Colony Hotel with its large curved concrete foundations and use of neon lights give off a feel for the space age. The Bacardi Building, a uniquely, abstract structure, brightly decorated with countless colors. Even buildings like the Post Office or the Police Station come with their own sense of style and luxury. These futuristic looking offices separate from the pack, as just about every Post Office or Police Station I have seen has been dreary and dull. Their inclusion into Miami Beach’s unique style just further illustrates how in Miami, even the most ordinary can be extraordinary.

Lastly, one cannot speak of Miami Beach’s splendor without mention of its luxurious beaches. On Ocean Avenue, right across the streets from some of the wondrous buildings I mentioned above, was the ocean. Even in late-November, the sun, sand, and sea were as grand as ever. The sea was a deep blue-green, with its waves washing up and down the shore for miles. I could see the glimmer of cruise ships, enjoying the warmest winter breeze I have ever felt. For the first time in our adventure-packed trip, I was able to just lay down and let the beauty wash over me, literally.

Our trip has been filled to the brim with experiences I will never forget. Whether it be the music and dance from the Cuban towns, the feeling of the 1950’s in downtown Havana, or the breath-taking views everywhere I look, I will always be thankful for the time I took to just stop and soak up the beauty of our world.

Ben Finley on Cuba’s Exiles

Ben Finley – Our first full day in Miami was inaugurated by a trip to Little Havana, a historically Cuban community. Still trying to fully appreciate my experience in Havana I was not expecting the same level of learning and engagement on a weekday morning in an old neighborhood. I was promptly proved wrong.

Ben Finley in an art museum in Havana, Cuba

Little Havana was marked with statues stating “No aceptamos ayuda de nadie” (We don’t accept help from anyone). This message appeared on statues in the middle of Little Havana. The final mural we came upon was of the Virgin Mary above a sea with three fisherman. As we had learned the day before this image of the Virgin bears a strong resemblance with one of the main Orishas (gods and goddesses) of the Afro-Cuban religion Santeria. We finished up with the formal tour of the area, then we were free to roam and seek out some much anticipated breakfast.

After a short walk a friend and I happened upon a local diner, where we met Ray. Ray was a Cuban immigrant who had come to the United States during Operation Peter Pan, which brought many Cuban children to Miami in the early 1960s. He commented on how his ranch had been taken by the government and had lived in the US for eight years before his parents were able to make it out of Cuba. We had learned about both Operation Peter Pan and the nationalization of large properties earlier in the semester, but it was so much more powerful to hear from a man whose life was shaped by both.

Lunch in Little Havana in Miami.

Ray went on to tell us (in a surprisingly calm tone) how his farm had been engineered to be essentially self-sufficient with a series of pastures for rotated grazing patterns and wind mills to provide water for each of the different cattle enclosures. The revolutionaries seized the farm, killed the cows, and cut the hardwood trees for lumber, which ended up being left to rot. He was raised by his older sister who was almost eighteen when they moved to the United States. As he put it, he was a man by the time his parents had joined him in the US. It was overwhelmingly emotional to be reunited, but he realized that he had grown into an adult learning his lessons without the benefit of parental guidance. This was a sobering perspective of how the subject matter of our class had affected actual individuals.

The educational opportunities of Miami came unexpectedly early as we were cruising for some breakfast and happened upon Ray, who complimented our eye for good breakfast joints. Having been immersed in the Cuban perspective for the past few days, the glow of Cuba’s charm began to fade as I learned about the lives of those who had been affected by the revolution and subsequent exodus.

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