Wabash Students Take In Pacers Game


Patrick Bryant ‘16 – A group of 50 Wabash students traveled to Bankers Life Fieldhouse at Indianapolis Friday night to attend an Indiana Pacers game.  The group of students represented all classes and almost all living units to witness a 96-83 victory over the Miami Heat, conference finals foes of the Pacers from two and three years ago.


New Student Body President Andrew Powell '17 cuts down a piece of the net. Each student was able to clip a souvenir.

New Student Body President Andrew Powell ’17 cuts down a piece of the net. Each student was able to clip a souvenir.

The trip was planned and paid for by the Senior Council Activities Committee and Wabash College Student Senate, including Student Body President Patrick Bryant ’16 and committee chairman Andrew Powell ’17, who was elected Thursday to take Bryant’s role starting in 2016. 

In addition to attending the game, members of the traveling party got to cut a piece of the net down to take with them as a souvenir.

In an impromptu meeting on the court, Chris Denari ’83, television announcer for the Pacers on Fox Sports Indiana, greeted students and explained his job to them.  Despite not expecting a group from Wabash to be present, Denari proudly showed students his ring from the 1982 National Championship basketball team of which he was a part.

Film Has Linebacker Wearing Many Hats

Six months of work boiled down to 23 minutes.

“Reaping Words,” the film that A.J. Clark ’16 wrote, produced, directed and starred in, represents six months of eye-opening work for his THE 498 Senior Seminar. “Over the summer, I knew that I wanted to do a film,” he said. “I spent June and July trying to come up with ideas. It was overwhelming to get this thing off the ground, develop characters, and think about it constantly.”

Clark was a key cog in the Little Giants' defense this season.

Clark was a key cog in the Little Giants’ defense this season.

For the average budding filmmaker, such an undertaking might be all consuming, but for Clark, who is an honorable mention all-conference linebacker on the 12-1 Wabash football team that advanced to the quarterfinals of the NCAA DIII playoffs, much of “Reaping Words” was produced in between his gridiron obligations.

Click Here for a Link to Clark’s Film

The idea to build a screenplay came to him in July. He wrote about 70 percent of the script during football training camp. By the Wittenberg game (Clark references weeks by the opponent faced), the script was completed and following an abbreviated preproduction period – a month of work in a week, Clark says – shooting started in October. The film’s final scene was shot during Monon Bell Week, and he edited in spurts during the Little Giants’ playoff run.

To pull this off, Clark had a dedicated crew of five to assist, but spent much of his time planning shots and editing the script as he went along, essentially leaving only Friday and Saturday nights to rehearse his lines before shooting most Sundays.

He points to the final scene where he and his on-screen mom (played by his real-life mom, Terra McMillian) talk on a bench in the Arboretum. It was shot during Fall Break, so no other students were around. But the schedule had to be kept. Clark lined up the shots, got the cameras and audio rolling, and often ran into position to deliver his lines. Scene ends, reset the cameras, and repeat.

“Wearing so many hats at the same time was pretty difficult,” said the product of Higley, AZ, “especially when trying to act because I was also a director, producer, and writer. If a line doesn’t work, or I have to find this prop, that affected my acting performance.”

While Clark’s original goal for the project was to produce something for his acting portfolio – he’s appeared on the Wabash stage multiple times as well – he never lost sight of the inspiration for the project. The struggle represented in the film mirrors his efforts to get his film made while fulfilling his obligations as a student and teammate.

A.J. and his mom, Terra McMillian, starred in "Reaping Words."

A.J. and his mom, Terra McMillian, starred in “Reaping Words.”

“That struggle was the inspiration,” he said. “The drive comes from your heart, from your passion, and the idea came from the struggle in trying to establish myself. I want to act and would love to direct.”

Clark says that “Reaping Words” has taught him the value of collaboration.

“I feel good about this project,” he said. “I learned how important other people are in the production. I now appreciate all of the roles like cinematographer, lighting director, props, and producers. I have an idea how massive the effort is in films. The list of credits in a regular movie makes so much more sense.

“If you have a vision, you definitely want to foster it, but it’s good to let others share in that.”

Campus Services Wins National Honor

The look around the campus sign changes throughout the year.

The look around the campus sign changes throughout the year.

Howard W. Hewitt – Wabash College’s campus services group, Sodexo, always does a great job making the campus beautiful. Over graduation, Big Bash, and fall football weekends our alumni frequently praise the workers for how nice the campus always looks.

Older landscaping is replaced by a newer look.

Older landscaping is replaced by a newer look.

Campus Services recently won a national honor from the Professional Grounds Management Society for its working keeping the campus looking nice. Wabash won a Green Star Honor Award in the small college and grounds category. Only seven national colleges were honored. The Green Star competition brings national recognition to grounds maintained with a ‘high degree of excellence, and complements other national landscape award programs that recognize outstanding design and construction.’

“Thanks to Tim Riley and his team for their outstanding efforts all year round,” said David Morgan, Director of Campus Services. “This is a significant national recognition of the program Tim has developed and operated for years here at Wabash.”

Riley has taken on the challenge of giving the campus a fresher look. Much of the landscaping around older campus buildings has been updated in recent years.



“Each summer we take a building with older, over-grown landscapes and completely start over,” Riley wrote in the submission for the award. “Current trends are low-growing perennials and shrubs that don’t require much pruning, watering, deadheading, or fertilization.  It has been a challenge to develop a plant palate that can be the best of the best.

“Since 2010, new landscape beds and most new turf installations are not irrigated. Expectations have been managed to allow turf to go dormant in certain areas and once landscape plantings are established, they can survive on their own. Indiana usually receives enough rain fall to allow this.”

The 43rd annual awards honored 29 grounds management programs for excellence, presenting six Grand Awards (the highest honor), 21 Honor Awards and two Merit Awards in 10 categories.


Campus trees require a lot of attention throughout the year.

Campus trees require a lot of attention throughout the year.


The Spirit of Caleb Mills

Richard Paige — His name weaves through our history all the way back to the moment where the original trustees knelt in the snow and founded this institution. The tradition we hold most dear – the bell that rings students in on Freshman Saturday and out on Commencement – had its beginnings with him. He, of course, is Caleb Mills.

For many, Mills simply is the name we attach to the spirit that flows through this place. How are we to know our first professor, a man who last taught in 1876 and passed away in 1879? Who can bring that spirit to life?

Chuck Beemer can. A lawyer, noted Civil War scholar, and the author of two books, Beemer is also Caleb Mills’ great-great grandson.

Beemer was born in Montgomery County and graduated from Crawfordsville High School in 1958. He earned his undergraduate degree from Colorado College, has a master’s from Wisconsin, and a law degree from North Carolina.

Chuck Beemer, the great-great grandson of Caleb Mills.

Chuck Beemer, the great-great grandson of Caleb Mills.

While on campus recently to discuss his latest book, “My Greatest Quarrel with Fortune: Major General Lew Wallace in the West, 1861–1862”, I sat down with him to talk about his legacy, his great-great grandfather, and coming home.

Are you more aware of your great-great grandfather when you come back to campus?
To be honest, I feel a sense of that while I’m on campus, but I feel a sense of it quite often. Mom (Julia Beemer) felt a very close kinship to Caleb Mills. She obviously didn’t know him, but I’ve heard the name Caleb Mills since I was yeah-high to a Fig Newton. I remember real early on that I was asked to make a presentation to the local grade school PTA meeting. Dad insisted that I say something about being the great-great grandson of Caleb Mills. It really bothered me to do it. Frankly, it sounded like I was bragging or trying to achieve a special status. The audience responded to it almost like it was an everyday commonplace thing. I think the name Caleb Mills is a very well-known name in Crawfordsville.

How much do you know of Dr. Mills and his accomplishments?
I’m very proud of the fact that he was the first professor here. Dad always used to talk about how they came across the mountains and knelt in the snow. So that image has been with me for a long, long time. I’m proud of the fact that he was superintendent of education, and I read someplace that he did so much to advance the cause of free public education that he became known as the Father of the Free Public School System in Indiana. That’s always meant quite a bit to me.

How much did his influence have on you becoming a Civil War historian or lawyer?
I’m not sure of any per se, more like an atmosphere. It was absolutely expected that my older brother and I would go to college. I desperately wanted to come to Wabash, but dad felt that getting away from home was an integral part of the educational process. He really kiboshed the idea; certainly nothing to do with Wabash, he recognized it as a great school. I’ve always been a fun loving guy and simultaneously somebody who has a strong sense of the need for education both in your personal and professional life. I think it was kind of an unspoken, unidentifiable, pervasive type of influence.

What do you know of him as a person?
I have read a lot of his (Caleb’s) letters to his son when Benjamin Marshall was in command of a company of black U.S. troops during the Occupation of Vicksburg in 1864. (He was a) Terribly, terribly, terribly strict disciplinarian, even with his son…very formal. There is no evidence of pleasantries. Very straight forward. Benjamin Marshall is quite like him in return letters, but you can see a little emotionalism creep in. As much as I revere and respect Caleb Mills, I don’t think I would have liked for him to have been my father. (laughs loudly) It would not have been easy.

Did those letters help to humanize him for you?
Absolutely. I have a great deal of respect and admiration for him as a man, even more so for what he accomplished. I would love to go back in time and sit and talk to him for however long. I don’t know how he’d relate to the PGA Tour or NBA basketball, but he must have been a man of immense character and I could tell he was a man of immense persuasion.

Does the campus still feel like home for you?
Still does. It never changes. Crawfordsville doesn’t change much either. It had been 40 years since I’d left, and I was struck by how much had not changed. The people of Crawfordsville have always been very warm and friendly. My relationship with the college has always been quite, quite solid. I follow the football and basketball teams closely. I did not go to Wabash, but I can assure you that Wabash is and will always be a strong part of me. I’m extremely pleased whenever I read something about Wabash because it’s always good news.

How meaningful is it to you that Caleb Mills, and his bell and mace, are still central to who we are?
When we got the Wabash Magazine a month or so ago, one of the first pictures at commencement had the faculty marshal carrying the cane. I showed it to (his wife) Nancy and said, “Your great-great grandfather-in-law is in that picture.” All she sees are guys in caps and gowns. She asked, “What are you talking about?” I said, “He’s right there in front. There is his cane. The spirit of Caleb Mills is in that picture.” Things like that mean a lot to me.

Immersed in Art and Baseball

Richard Paige — We talk a great deal here about the impact of immersion trips. In the next few days alone, Wabash men will be traipsing across the globe, including destinations like Italy and South Africa.

Rhetoric professor Todd McDorman immersed his Baseball and the American Identity freshman tutorial class in the charming hamlet known as Cooperstown, NY, and the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in mid-October.

I was curious how such a trip might influence a group of guys — baseball fans — a good number of them baseball players, too. It’s not like the guys headed to Rome can actually define themselves as gladiators. Would it make an impact, or be brushed off like that of a bad-hop ground ball?

Eilshemius’ “Van Courtland Park”

Eilshemius’ “Van Courtland Park”

Bryce Bridgewater ’19 is one of 13 who made the trip. The class impacted him long before the group made it to Cooperstown.

“I’m a baseball player and I love the sport,” he said. “I didn’t think I’d ever be given an opportunity like that to learn and analyze different aspects of the game; how baseball and America have grown up together and shaped history. It wasn’t what I expected. The game and America are best friends.”

Each had a research project on how a particular subject is presented and influenced by its presentation in Hall of Fame.

Bridgewater threw himself a curve. For a guy who had been to one art museum previously, he chose art and baseball simply because it was different. He spent four hours in the exhibit.

Andy Worhol's "Tom Seaver" also was a favorite.

Andy Warhol’s “Tom Seaver” also was a favorite.

“It was hard at times not to be a fan,” said the right-handed pitcher from Indianapolis. “You get caught up in it, but you have to remember that you are being a critic. It took some time to step back and make those connections.”

He noticed that each work of art had its own interpretation of the game. He started to see the game from a different perspective.

“It gave me a chance to see what the game looked like in different eras and how it’s changed,” Bridgewater said. “The game my grandpa knew and the game my dad knew is different than the game I know.”

One piece resonated strongly with Bridgewater. Louis M. Eilshemius’ “Van Courtland Park” shows the game in its infancy. It reminded him of what made him fall in love with the game. “It was like playing a pick-up game in the backyard with friends,” he said.

The experience opened his eyes to the impact that art has on any subject.

"Phil Niekro" by LaVern Brock was constructed completely of baseball cards.

“Phil Niekro” by LaVern Brock was constructed completely of baseball cards.

“I didn’t think that a painting could have told me about the connections or the importance,” he said. “The art, the artifacts, the exhibit, the town itself that all opened my eyes. Art is more than just a painting, there is a story behind it. If I went back to that art museum, I might feel differently now.”

The experience allowed him to draw parallels between pitching and painting. Whether it’s attacking the hitters or the canvas, it’s the approach that is unique.

“Every athlete’s or artist’s approach is different,” Bridgewater concluded. “They might be inspired by something completely different. It’s all interpretation. That’s why I think art and baseball are fascinating. You might get similar results, but the process is so much different.”

Medieval History Made Fun

Richard Paige — If only every idea that crossed your desk could be as whimsical.

Professor of History Stephen Morillo got an out-of-the-blue e-mail from a high school student named Greyson Beights, who asked if Morillo could write a 200-word description of the Battle of Hastings.

That whimsy eventually became Medieval Lego, a book that pairs real historians’ summaries of events like the Battle of Hastings, the chartering of Oxford University, and the signing of the Magna Carta with Lego bricks.

I don’t think there could there be a better way to make any subject appealing to children than to mix in Lego constructions.

Professor Morillo's contributions inside Medieval Lego.

Professor Morillo’s contributions can be found inside Medieval Lego.

“It’s an interesting, almost noble thought to make Medieval history interesting to kids by building Lego set pieces of famous battles or sieges,” Morillo said. “Greyson did it right. He got good builders and made good Lego constructions. He made it reliable and respectable by getting in touch with some big-name Medieval historians like Robert Bartlett and Steven Isaac.”

Two-hundred words on the Battle of Hastings. Would he do it?

“I’m thinking I could do that in my sleep,” said Morillo. “Sure, I’ll take part. So I sent him my stuff.”

Some 15 months later, a copy of Medieval Lego arrived in Morillo’s office. The finished product was impressive. Plus, the Battle of Hastings landed on the cover.

“It was a damn good idea,” Morillo said. “He makes some real connections here.”

I asked Morillo if this particular publication would leap to the top of his C.V. “Yes, I think it will,” he laughed. “It’s the most recent thing, so, of course, it goes right to the top.”

One Play, One Memorable Tackle

Richard Paige — So many things have to come together for any single play in football to work. When they do, it can lead to a very special moment.

Sixty-seven seconds remained in the Little Giants’ 55-7 win at Wooster last weekend when special happened.

“If you would have seen the way the guys on the sideline reacted, you would have thought that we won the national championship,” offensive coordinator Don Morel said. “That’s as much fun as I’ve had in 25 years of coaching.”

Ethan Shultz '19

Ethan Shultz ’19

Ethan Shultz is a freshman outside linebacker. He stands 5-foot-6, weighs 152 pounds, and is diabetic. For him to even be on the team is borderline miraculous.

He’s a member of the scout team defense, which means each week he and 10 other teammates mimic the opponent’s defense to give the starters a chance to simulate what they might face on Saturday.

It’s a thankless job because scout teamers spend more time learning the opposing D than they do their own.

Coaches notice. And they noticed Shultz, who sticks his nose in there every day and plays to the best of his ability on each play. He does everything asked of him.

Shultz grew up in Danville, Ohio, roughly 30 miles from the Wooster campus, and as a reward for his hard work, earned a spot on the Little Giants’ travel team. That’s as much as any freshman could hope for.

Late in the game with the Little Giants cruising, Shultz’s teammates began chanting his name. They wanted him to get a chance to play. The coaches started to talk. Could we get him on the field?

“Something crazy had to happen for us to get him in the game,” said assistant coach and recruiting coordinator Olmy Olmstead. “We’re on defense and we need something to get him in on the kickoff squad.”

A few plays later, A.J. Clark ’16 intercepted a pass and returned it 58 yards for a score. Crazy just happened and Coach Erik Raeburn green lighted the decision to put him in.

Shultz trotted on to the field for the ensuing kick-off. With the ball on its way, he sprinted down the field wearing No. 58, and he made the tackle. The Little Giant sideline erupted.

“It felt great to make that tackle on my first collegiate play,” Shultz explained. “It felt as all the hard work I’ve put in on scout team finally came to fruition.”

This isn’t a Rudy experience, that’s fairytale. Moments like Shultz’s happen far more often in college sports than Hollywood ever lets on. What’s truly memorable about Ethan’s performance is that in the singular moment – seven seconds in total – he got an opportunity and made the most of it. The hard work, the practices, the focus, the dedication. He. Made. The. Tackle.

Coaches love when their guys rise and meet the moment. Ethan Shultz did exactly that.

“I’m not sure how much Ethan Schultz is going to get in there and play in the future, but I can promise you that if he continues to perform like he does on our scout team, you are going to want that guy in your organization.

“He absolutely earned it,” Olmstead said. “He deserved every second of that moment.”

Seven seconds, three frames, one memorable tackle.

Seven seconds, three frames, one memorable tackle.


09 betty laughs lores

Betty Allen H’57

Steve Charles—As the self-proclaimed official photographer for Associate Director of Communications Richard Paige’s Wabash on My Mind podcasts, I get to sit in on some of the most interesting conversations on campus. The highlight of my Homecoming Weekend was Rich’s interview of Betty and Bob Allen as they anticipated Betty’s being named an honorary alumna of the College. (Watch for the podcast on the Web site in the near future).

Rich does a great job of honoring his guests by taking these conversations seriously while welcoming them and helping them to relax behind the mic. It wasn’t long before Betty and Bob were laughing and taking turns reflecting on DePauw (Betty’s alma mater), Wabash (Bob’s), their first year as a married couple in Mud Hollow (ask them about “rocking the roof”), their life together as Bob rose through the ranks at AT&T, and their children.

Betty recalled an essay she’d been assigned when she was a girl; she had been asked to write down her life goals.

“I’ve saved it, and I re-read it just recently,” she said. “I wrote, ‘I want to be a good wife and mother.’”

“She’s been a perfect mother,” Bob said, and he described with gratitude the loving home she had created for him and for their children.

I felt a surge of gratitude myself; Betty is about the age my own mother would be today had she lived. I was taken back to grade school and those forms we had to fill out at the beginning of the school year:

Phone number:
Occupation of father:
Occupation of mother:

Dad was an insurance agent. I didn’t know what to write for mom.

“Homemaker,” she told me, and she said it proudly. It had been her life goal-the hardest work and, for her, the highest calling. Betty Allen’s vocation: A good wife and a good mother. “The backbone of the family,” as Betty’s honorary alumna citation puts it.

Consider the fact that Bob and Betty have contributed millions to the new independent housing on campus, and Betty’s a home builder, too!

Sunday morning I was listening to On Being on NPR as the cultural anthropologist Mary Catherine Bateson spoke about what the word “homemaker” meant to her. She described women doing this work as “composing a life, as if throwing a pot or painting—a creative act.”

She said you’ll even see this tendency when homemaker enter the world of business: “They often maintain an awareness of whether their decisions are for the general good, they notice discomfort, distrust and try to resolve it. They support people working together.”

“Homemaking is creating an environment in which learning is possible,” Bateson said. “That is what a home is. That is what we want the home we give to our children to be—places where they grow in many different ways, they learn how to connect with other people, they learn how to care for others, they learn skills, their own capacities, how to trust other people, how to trust themselves.”

02 widdows, kay smiles lores

Professor Kealoha Widdows H’07

That got me thinking about Professor Kealoha Widdows—a woman who chose a career path very different from Betty Allen’s. Here’s part of the citation NAWM President Rick Cavanaugh read naming Kay an honorary alumna.

“Your steadfast belief that your students need to see the world in order to be effective leaders in it is seen in the many immersion learning courses you have taught. You have led students to three continents, including Ecuador to study the political economy of oil production and Europe to learn about policy-making in the European Union. You have brought international visitors to our campus who have enriched students’ experiences.

“We are told that your name translates to ‘love’ and ‘a great friend who will always be by your side.’ For nearly three decades, you have stood by the sides of scores of Wabash men you have taught, mentored, loved, and cheered on with admiration.”

The work Kay Widdows and all our best teachers, men and women, do—the dedication and heart they bring to that work—sounds a lot like Bateson’s definition of homemaking. It’s a sign of the times that many of today’s professors do that work both at Wabash and for their own families.


At the beginning of Saturday’s Homecoming Chapel, President Hess urged returning alumni to “remember that Wabash is always your home.”

Those words would be little more than wishful thinking if not for generations of women who have loved this “College for men” and its students—teacher/homemakers like Betty Allen and Kay Widdows. The well-earned standing ovations for Betty and Kay at Saturday’s Chapel were a moment to give thanks for them all.

A teachable moment.

3D Printing Fosters Lasting Connection

Wabash Summer Research: In Our Own Words is a multimedia piece that uses the voices of Wabash College students to describe still photographs of their summer research work in the biology, chemistry, physics, and 3D printing laboratories on campus. The piece includes photographs by Grace Vaught with editing done by Austin Myers ’16.


A 3D printer helped bring a 1,500-year-old mathematics text to life.

While working on a manuscript of his own, assistant professor of mathematics Colin McKinney was perusing a text written in the late fifth century A.D. by Eutocius that described in great detail how to construct a device that would solve a basic geometry problem.

According to McKinney, Eutocius was very detailed in his descriptions of the mesolabe, right down to its dovetail-shaped groves.

“The text that describes this instrument is very clear in the language of how to construct it,” McKinney said. “For a mathematical text, that is kind of interesting.”

Sufficiently intrigued, McKinney was faced with a choice. He could spend the better part of a weekend carving it out of wood or he could 3D print it, “and that seemed much easier,” he laughed.

Professor McKinney's mesolabe both as a work in progress (top) and completed.

Professor McKinney’s mesolabe both as a work in progress (top) and completed.

Using Eutocius’ descriptions, McKinney designed the piece in an hour or two and used the Wabash 3D Printing and Fabrication Center to pint it. From inspiration to prototype took the better part of an afternoon.

“The advantage of 3D printing is you can try something and make modifications quickly,” McKinney said. “If I’m making this out of wood and discovered it wouldn’t work, that would have been an entire weekend gone. It really accelerates the rate at which you can try different things.”

The extruded plastic output also solidified a connection to the text that was unexpected. McKinney got a qualitative response to a very quantitative problem.

“That’s the awesome part,” he explained. “It’s real math history and to be able to make something that’s described in a text just totally changes that text. To be able to say here is the 21st century version of that fourth century device really brings it to life in a way the text in itself doesn’t.”

What began as work on a research paper soon grew into something bigger.

“To be able to get this thing prototyped quickly meant that I could keep making progress on that paper,” McKinney said. “I knew it would work in a geometric sense because I could prove that, but it’s totally different to put this on a piece of paper and, bam, those are the links right there that I need.”

The success McKinney enjoyed in crafting the mesolabe with the 3D printer has led him to attempt to produce more complicated devices. It’s also spawned a second paper.

The Value of a Mentor

Richard Paige — While the College celebrates the teaching and artistic accomplishments of Doug Calisch this weekend with the opening of 35 Retro in the Eric Dean Gallery, I was interested in the role than a mentor plays in the development of an artist.

So I reached out to Joe Trumpey ’88 via e-mail and asked him this: how important or meaningful is a mentor to a developing artist?

His reply was better than I could have hoped, and captures so many of the qualities that make Doug worth celebrating.

Joe Trumpey '88.

Joe Trumpey ’88.

“Doug Calisch was just the mentor I needed to launch my creative life. He is a calm, patient, and caring man. It was that demeanor that swayed me into a dual major. As a freshman I was a biology major thinking about an art minor. Getting to know Doug in 3-D design as a freshman, I realized that “making stuff” was an important part of who I am. I saw that creative quality in Doug and his work. He gently encouraged me to complete a dual major. He was not high pressure. Just an idea. Just there. Listening to me. Paying attention to me. Talking with me. Caring for me. Holding me accountable. Challenging me. How could I refuse? I valued those qualities then and still today. I learned a lot about being an educator from Doug and still strive to be the calm, attentive mentor that he was to me and countless others.”

Now an associate professor of art at the University of Michigan, Trumpey also relayed a story that brought things full circle for him.

“I was the student representative on Doug’s tenure review committee. Once he successfully achieved the tenure he deserved, he went on sabbatical and began building the home he designed. I spent a good part of that summer working in a bio lab on a research project during the day and spent nights and weekends helping Doug and Laura build their home. Twenty-three years later, after I achieved tenure at the University of Michigan, I began building my own home. Doug and Laura’s son, Sam, contacted me interested in green building. Sam came to Michigan and lived with us for more than a month working hard in building our home. It was a fulfilling and beautiful thing.”